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《纽约时报》讣告怀念单田芳:将中国陈旧传统
发表时间: 2018-09-23

“欲知后事如何,且听下回分化。”

一桌、一椅、一扇、一抚尺,评书表演艺术家单田芳报告着一段段历史传偶,各圆好汉英雄、浊世枭雄纷纭退场。

2018年9月11日,评书年夜师单田芳果病去世。海内媒体报导、留念单田芳的同时,米国《纽约时报》(The New York Times)也宣布了少文讣告(obituary),回想他做为平话人的毕生,怀念单田芳。

在作品开篇,《纽约时报》评估他:“将古老的评书传统推向现代,让几代中国人得以欣赏。”

Shan Tianfang, a storyteller whose energetic oral renditions of classical Chinese novels and historical events propelled the ancient pingshu tradition into the modern age for generations of Chinese, died on Sept. 11 in Beijing. He was 83.

评话人单田芳于9月11日在北京往世,享年83岁。他对中国古典小说和历史事宜做出充斥豪情的归纳,将陈旧的评书传统推向古代,让多少代中国人得以观赏。

rendition n. 译文;演奏

晚年时间:曾未想进此行

回瞅单田芳的终生,文中写讲:上世纪50年月,说书这一行业社会位置低下,诞生于官方戏子家庭的单田芳并已念过行上这一行。

单田芳

Mr. Shan tried for many years to avoid becoming a performer of pingshu, the Song dynasty-era storytelling tradition. Growing up in 1950s China in a family of folk art performers, he had seen struggle firsthand. It was a life of constant financial troubles and low social status.

单田芳已经其实不愿望成为这类源于宋朝的故事讲说传统的表演者。他在20世纪50年代中国的一个平易近间艺人家庭长大,亲眼目击了这一行的艰巨。那是一种连续处于经济窘境、社会地位低下的生活。

So it was with great reluctance when, out of financial necessity, he became an apprentice to a family friend who was a master of pingshu. He made his debut in 1956.

因此,当他出于生存上的须要,拜一个评书年夜师为师,他也是单田芳的家属友人。其时单田芳十分没有甘心,1956年,他初次登台演出。

评书是怎么的一种艺术形式呢?看《纽约时报》是若何描述的:

In the pingshu tradition, the performer wears a traditional gown and sits behind a desk equipped with a folding fan and a wooden block, which is used like a gavel. The storyteller recounts a legend — typically a classical Chinese epic — from memory, using different voices and exaggerated gestures as well as adding occasional background detail and commentary.

在评书传统中,表演者身着传统的长袍,坐在桌子前面。桌上有一把合扇和一个作醉木之用的木块。说书人讲述平日来自中国古典史诗的传奇故事。他们根据记忆来表演,应用分歧的声响、夸大的手势,偶然还减入配景细节和评论。

即使进行时并不宁愿,但厥后,他慢慢地爱上了这一行。

更不足为奇的是,他不断改进。

单田芳细心研究,研究历史,在古典史诗中发现的历史毛病、迷疑理想,他都能基于自己的研究进行改正,并用自成一家的作风进行诠释:

Mr. Shan grew to love the storytelling form, which is popular across northern China. It is a demanding profession that combines acting, oration, writing, historical research and literary criticism and requires countless hours of memorization.

单田芳匆匆爱好上了这种在中国南方风行的讲故事方法。这是一个请求很下的职业,集表演、演说、写作、历史研究和文学批评于一体,需要影象多数个小时的资料。

But bothered by what he felt were the many historical inaccuracies and superstitious fantasies found in the classical epics, Mr. Shan, who had studied history, soon began performing his own interpretations based on his meticulous historical research.

不外,在古典史诗中发明的很多近况过错和科学空想令单田芳觉得懊恼。基于自己对历史的研讨,他很快就开初用本人的解释和懂得禁止表演。

有了这样的基本,在东北地区的许多茶馆里,他以对经典的新鲜演绎而著名。

广播时代:声名鹊起

文革时代,单田芳说书的任务一度中止,文革停止当前,跟着时期发作,单田芳发现传统的茶社说书情势已不克不及满意观众的需要。

机遇偶合之下,单田芳获得了经由过程广播电台说书的机遇。但他却发现,录音室里和在茶社分歧,出有道具,也看不到听书人的反响。

他是若何做的呢?

So for his first radio performance, an abridged version of the historical novel “The Romance of Sui and Tang Dynasties,” Mr. Shan used the studio’s three recording technicians as his audience and adjusted his performance based on their reactions.

因而,在他的第一次播送上演——节略版的历史演义《隋唐小说》中,单田芳用了演播室三名灌音师作为不雅众,依据他们的反映对自己的表演进止调剂。

借助广播的力气,此次评书有1亿多中国观众收听,单田芳申明鹊起:

The performance had its premiere in 1980 on Chinese New Year, and more than 100 million Chinese were estimated to have tuned in during the 56 hours over which it was broadcast. It was the beginning of a dramatic second act both for Mr. Shan and for pingshu in the People’s Republic of China. He was soon a household name across the country.

此次扮演于1980年在中国阴历新年尾播,正在播出的56个小时里,估量有跨越1亿中国不雅寡支听。对单田芳跟中国评书来讲,那皆标记着戏剧性的第发布秋的开端。他很快在天下妇孺皆知。

后来,单田芳为广播和电视录制了大批的评书故事,《纽约时报》列出了一串让人赞叹的数字:

Over six decades, Mr. Shan recorded more than 110 stories for radio and television totaling about 12,000 episodes and spanning 6,000 hours. His best-known works include his renditions of Chinese classics like “White-Eyebrow Hero” and “Sanxia Wuyi” and his dramatizations of historical figures like Zhuge Liang and Lin Zexu.

60多年来,单田芳为广播和电视录造了110多个故事,统共约12000散,时长6000小时。他最有名的作品包含对《黑眉大侠》、《三侠五义》等中国典范名著的演绎,和对诸葛明、林则缓等历史人物的戏剧化改编。

时至本日,单田芳在中国仍然广受观众欢送:

Even today, hop into a Beijing taxi and the driver may be listening to one of Mr. Shan’s recordings.

即便在明天,假如您坐上一辆北京出租车,司机可能仍是在听单田芳的灌音。

《纽约时报》采访了一名48岁的出租车司机,他说,单田芳能把复纯故事简单化,听着“特别带劲儿”。

“For my generation, Shan Tianfang was a master,” said Zhao Fuwei, 48, a Beijing taxi driver. “If back then there was such thing as a viral star, then Shan Tianfang was definitely the hottest viral star.”

“对付咱们这代人去道,单田芳便是一个巨匠,”48岁的北京出租车司机赵祸为(音)说,“从前是不网白一说,如果像当初如许,那单老爷子准是网红。”

“Listening to his stories has made it easier to kill time in bad traffic,” Mr. Zhao added. “He was so good at making complicated historical stories simple and interesting. You feel like you could relate to the characters in his stories, even though they lived a long time ago.”

“北京这破路,堵逝世,听听书还舒畅面,”赵老师接着说,“人家能把庞杂故事简略化,听着特殊带劲女。固然他讲的都是前人的事,然而你能感到到自己和这些人类能发生共识。”

艺术人死

文章先容说,单田芳出身于演艺世家。本妄想当一位大夫,却因为家庭变节,接过了家里做表演行当的衣钵:

Shan Chuanzhong was born on Dec. 17, 1934, in Tianjin, China. His mother, Wang Xianggui, was a stage actress. His father, Shan Yongkui, was a folk musician who played the sanxian, a three-stringed Chinese lute.

单传忠(单田芳本名——译注)于1934年12月17日在中国天津出生。他的母亲王喷鼻桂是一名舞台戏子。他的父亲单永魁则是一名民间音乐家,重要吹奏一种名叫“三弦”的中国弹拨乐器。

Growing up, Mr. Shan and his four sisters frequently moved around northeastern China with their parents, an experience that left him longing for a more stable life and career. But in the early 1950s, when his parents divorced and his mother left the family, Mr. Shan gave up his dream of being a doctor and embraced his performance heritage.

在生长的过程当中,单田芳和他的四个mm在中国西南地域频仍迁居。由于有着如许的一段阅历,单田芳无比盼望领有一个稳固的生活和工作。当心是,在20世纪50年月晚期,他的怙恃仳离,母亲分开了这个家。而从那以后,单田芳就废弃了当大夫的幻想,接过了家里做表演行当的衣钵。

他前随着一个评书师女做学徒,学成后参加了一个民间直艺团。这个集团驻守在鞍山,而在当时候,这个东北小镇恰是一个以茶社和评书驰名的处所。

文革时代,他的演艺生活因此沉静,而文革以后的20世纪80年代,单田芳享毁齐国。

2007年,单田芳退休。在评书这种艺术形式已经逐渐成为“小众”的时代,他的奇迹仍在连续。《纽约时报》写道:

But in recent years many of the great pingshu performers have died, and the tradition is fading. By the time Mr. Shan retired in 2007, interest in pingshu among Chinese had all but been replaced by mobile phones and gaming.

但是最近几年来,许多优良的评书人都接踵来世,这一传统也在逐步消散。到了2007年单田芳退息的时辰,中国人对评书的兴致曾经被脚机和游戏所代替。

Nevertheless, even after retiring, Mr. Shan worked tirelessly to promote pingshu among young Chinese, mentoring apprentices and starting a school dedicated to the folk arts.

但是,即使在退休后,单田芳也仍然辛苦天工作,在中国年青人傍边推行评书、教诲教徒,还办了一家平易近间艺术黉舍。

而对于生活中涌现的新科技,单田芳始末抱着接纳的态量:

Ever willing to adapt to new technologies, he posted a message to his Sina Weibo microblog account on Sept. 6, five days before his death. It was an announcement about a new live-streamed lecture series about pingshu.

对于生涯里呈现的新科技,单田芳一直抱着接收的立场。在他逝世的前五天,也就是9月6日,他借在他的新浪微博账号上收收了一条新闻。在那条微专里,他背人人发布,他的线上评书公然课开讲了。

(起源:中国日报单语消息编纂部)